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commit 952d0f3a45fde9462902de8cba1a8ac1cf9534ed
parent 9f349a8d32849c0b1d4a22eeacc5b26c59d9f903
Author: Lynn Foster <>
Date:   Sun, 28 Oct 2018 08:40:53 -0500

Merge pull request #285 from nogo10/master

construction commons article
Ause-cases/ | 42++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
1 file changed, 42 insertions(+), 0 deletions(-)

diff --git a/use-cases/ b/use-cases/ @@ -0,0 +1,42 @@ + +The construction sector is a varied and complex economic sector with roots going back to thousands of years of architectural and construction practice on every continent. Originally conceived as family and community auto-constructed structures, it evolved into institutional and urban scale societal projects spanning the full spectrum of uses and resource allocation models: from patronage funded construction to commerce and industrial building. What gets built has, for the most part, always been a reflection of societal concerns and focus. Ancient architecture emerged from Imperialistic and religious considerations. Today construction (in the broadest sense) is inextricably bound to financial and economic, public works and jurisdictional priorities. In the future we may see that climate change, ecological, and space exploration concerns may be drivers of construction of all types. + +In the context of open value networks, construction may be for community purposes and at scale can be seen as public works (as a commons network level project). The initiation of construction projects is typically demand driven. In public works the first steps are typically Investment Analysis to evaluate economic and financial feasibility of the construction. This analysis triggers feasibility studies, budgeting and preliminary design. Construction here, unless it is an end product, correlates with Network Level projects in P2P parlance ( That is to say, construction is oft a commons/public or private work that benefits other projects, productions or commons. Seen in that light, the restoration of ecologies can be seen to be equivalent to construction in its net benefits. The following will examine in detail the steps in Public works project : + +By way of contextualizing Budget and planning with a use case, here is a project structure of modern construction from inception to delivery in simplified form: + +#### Project inception stage (basis, need, demand) Definition phase scope + +#### Project identification stage: + + - Initiation phase + - Feasibility Phase + - Analysis Phase with Class D estimate + - Risk analysis and contingency planning + - Identification close out phase + +#### Project delivery stage: + + - Planning Phase + - Design Phase + - Professional Services Procurement + - Analysis of Project Requirements + - Concept Design Proposals with Class C estimate + - Design Development with Class B estimate + + - Implementation Phase + - Contract Documents + - Pre-Tender Class A estimate + - Tender Call, Bid Evaluation & Construction Contract Award + + - Construction Contract Administration + - Consultant Contract Administration + - Delivery Close Out Phase + - Operations and maintenance life-cycle + + + As one can see, estimates are used leading up to tendering and continues (as changer orders , directives and any scope change as 'on the ground' unforeseen conditions arise (hence the previous risk analysis) + +In private projects, as opposed to public works, a more streamlined workflow is used. ROI analysis for construction budget divides soft costs (professional services and design) and hard costs (actual construction costs). In the context of open value networks, it is worth noting, “The price of every factory, office building, hotel or power plant that is built affects the price that must be charged for the goods or services produced in it or by it. And that effect generally persists for decades”[2]. + +When one considers construction of affordable housing, life support, regenerative design and terraforming, those construction costs (resource requirements) create value and resources in and of themselves.